Nutrition Before During and After Cancer

Information on nutritional needs for cancer patients


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Supplements of Interest for Cancer Survivors

The following are some supplements of particular interest for cancer survivors:

cancer survivor

Vitamin D

Vitamin D seems to have anti proliferative effects that may be especially beneficial for decreasing cancer progression and enhancing survival, at least based on animal studies. Low circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D], the recommended biomarker of vitamin D status, is linked to an increased risk of several cancers. Observational studies tie higher 25(OH)D levels to improved outcomes among colorectal cancer survivors and possibly breast cancer survivors. But even when low circulating 25(OH) D is associated with worse outcomes in observational studies, it isn’t clear whether supplementation changes prognosis.

It’s unclear whether the Institute of Medicine’s 25(OH) D, recommendation of 600 to 800 IU daily based on bone health are adequate, for bone or overall health among cancer survivors. Some researchers propose targeting serum 25(OH)D levels of at least 30 ng/mL or 40 to 80 ng/mL in the survivor population, with an intake of 1,000 to 2,000 IU of vitamin D commonly recommended to reach those levels but still not established as optimal.

A concern among breast and prostate cancer survivors is the risk of osteoporosis secondary to surgical, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapies that decrease estrogen or testosterone levels, respectively, or following long-term corticosteroid use. While aiming for bone- and cancer-protective benefits, researchers emphasize that evidence is lacking regarding the safety of high blood levels of vitamin D.

Glutamine

Glutamine is an essential amino acid of interest for its potential to aid mouth sores and other symptoms of mucositis and to improve peripheral neuropathy that develops as a side effect of chemotherapy. It supports gastrointestinal cell growth and regeneration, and it may reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines. Significant side effects are uncommon with oral glutamine supplementation. More research on its use is needed, but caution is advised among patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency because, since it’s an amino acid, the liver and kidneys must metabolize glutamine. In patients with liver or renal insufficiency on protein restriction, glutamine supplementation should be avoided so as not to burden these organs.

Glutamine is used in clinical practice as a powder mixed into oral solution, generally “swished” before swallowing for mucositis benefit.

Melatonin

This is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, holds dual interest for cancer survivors. For those who have difficulty falling asleep, doses of 0.5 to 3 mg at bedtime may be helpful. Emerging evidence suggests that melatonin may provide cancer-protective effects by upregulating antioxidant enzymes and suppressing factors that promote cancer development. Limited data show some improvement in mortality rates when used at higher doses as an accompaniment to conventional cancer therapy.

Since melatonin can alter estrogen levels and may interact with drugs metabolized through certain pathways, those considering use should consult their physicians.


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Cancer Survivor……

For those fortunate enough to survive cancer, living a healthy lifestyle couldn’t be more important.

The American Cancer Society recommends exercising five or more days a week, 30 minutes per session, start with brief sessions, knowing every minute of activity will improve strength and endurance.

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After Cancer treatment, normal eating patterns will gradually resume, but most important is food safety at every meal; infection can be a concern among survivors.

Eating five servings daily of fruit and vegetables should become routine. Dark green, leafy vegetables like Swiss chard, spinach, kale and beet greens are good choices, especially when prepared with garlic. In laboratory tests, the allyl sulfate in garlic has been shown to block the spread of cancer.

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Fresh herbs such as rosemary, mint, thyme, oregano and basil have documented medicinal properties related to the terpines in their essential oils. Terpines appear to block inflammation by reducing the production of cox-2, the principal enzyme used by cancer cells to cause inflammation.

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Whole grains such as bulgur, barley, oats and brown rice are a good source of saponins, a water and fat-soluble plant compound that acts like an antibiotic. They may help fight infection and protect a recurrence.

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Fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, herring, cod and sardines are good protein sources. They have the added benefit of being rich sources of healthy, omega-3 fatty acids, which play a vital role in boosting immunity.

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